Аннотация: Мақолада бўлажак педагог-рассомнинг касбий сифатларини шакллантиришда бадиий фикрлаш ўрни ва моҳияти, бадиий фикрлашнинг асосий категориялари, бадиий соҳадаги мутахассислар тайёрлашнинг ўзига хос хусусиятлари илмий асослаб берилган.
Калит сўзлар: касбий фикрлаш, бадиий фикрлаш, хусусияти, педагог-рассом, тасвирий санъат, халк амалий - безак санъати.
Аннотация: В статье рассмотрены место и роль художественного мышления в формировании профессиональных качеств будущего педагога – художника, проанализированы основные категории художественного мышления, его специфика и особенности подготовки специалистов художественного профиля.
Ключевые слова: профессиональное мышление, художественное мышление, специфика, педагог – художник, изобразительное искусство, народное декоративно-прикладное искусство.
Abstract: The following article reveals the place and the role of creative thinking in the formation of professional qualities of a prospective teacher-artist. The main categories of artistic thinking, its specifics and peculiarities of training the specialists in painting are also presented.
Key words: professional thinking, artistic thinking, specifics, teacher-artist, fine arts, national decorative applied art.
An important element of professionally significant qualities of the future teacher-artist is a highly professional way of thinking as a prerequisite for the effective implementation of creative activity. The development of professional thinking of the individual artist-teacher - a pledge of success as a creative and pedagogical work. In the literature, as well as in the scientific vocabulary used often terms associated with the professional activity as for example pedagogical thinking teachers, medical thinking doctor, political thinking, a public figure, a design engineer thinking, management, creative thinking painter, musician, actor, and others . There is no doubt that the very thought processes among specialists of any profile in general take place in accordance with the cognitive processes [1, p. 19].
Consider ways of thinking related to professional, including occupational teacher - artist:
- Abstract - theoretical thinking, aimed at the analysis and synthesis of specific sources (mainly scientific, psychological and pedagogical, educational, art history) and other materials, the results of acquaintance with an exhibition of works by artists, museum exhibits, and the like.
- Practical thinking associated with a holistic view of the situation in their professional activities. statement of purpose, objectives, ways to implement them with the development of creative plans and projects;
- Reproductive thinking, reproduce certain methods or techniques of professional activity on the model;
- Productive, creative thinking, during which put the problems identified new strategies to ensure efficiency of work, confrontation of extreme situation;
- Spatial visualization ability, meaning the representation of the situation and changes in it, who wants to get a person as a result of their professional activities;
- Verbal and logical thinking, where the decision of professional problems occur with the help of a real change in the situation on the basis of the observed motor act;
- Analytical, logical thinking, including maximized in time, having expressed stages of mental operations, presented in the human mind;
- Intuitive thinking, which is characterized by the speed of the flow, the lack of clearly defined stages, minimal awareness (2, p.175)
All of the above types of thinking, in varying degrees, affect the level of formation of professional thinking, especially those of its species, as a practical, visual-motor, etc. Their combination, depending on the professional activity of providing specific types of thinking -. pedagogical, operational, administrative, clinical, and others. However, there is the subject of specificity means the results of labor, against which mental operations are carried out. And thinking of the artist due to the nature of graphic activity has its own peculiarities, which is associated with the specific practice, in our case with a teacher of fine arts activities. The specificity of its practice is expressed primarily in the features of his profession, working with pencil, brush cutter, drawing, including and on the board, painting, sculpting, arts and crafts work. Artist and teacher constantly saturates your thinking process visual images, which determines the visual-like character of thinking.
So thinking of the artist, including the artist-teacher is a kind of way of thinking, which includes several of his species, mainly the combination of abstract and theoretical, as well as intuitive, associated with the rapid implementation of the sketches, drawings, sketches and studies. And this combination gives the right to characterize the mindset of the artist and the artist-teacher as an artistic way of thinking, the ability to think in images, to reproduce life in images (3, p.161).
Stages of work – drawing
The idea and its realization: I-IV stage
In turn, the creative activity of the artist and the artist-educator is based on the development of visual memory and imagination. Their visual memory under the influence of visually perceived the surrounding reality, the various forms of nature and everyday objects, their colors, space, perspective and regular exercise makes really use the terms of images, generate such an important quality of the artist as associativity.
Artistic thinking and artistic imagination - constitutes art. Without a developed imagination, backed by solid training, strong skills of artistic craft is impossible the process of artistic creation, the creation of new works. The artist, a master of arts and crafts, teacher, artist, creating whether painting, sculpture, applied art, a series of visual aids - tables, consciously and sometimes unconsciously performs the following tasks:
1. Bites work plan translates into material (paper, cardboard, tracing paper, and others.) The first initial images imprinted in the imagination;
2. Fills the contents of the initial sketch sketches, sketches, sketches, and if this is what the industry or of artistic crafts - selects the respective patterns and ornaments for future compositions.
3. Come to the final sketch selection, selection of art materials (canvas, cardboard, paper, and so on. n.) Referring mentally to postpone the right cerebral cortex imagined the final version of the product.
4. Final work under a work embodied in the material plan, the approach to the idea of the work created by the imagination of the master or brush cutter.
The artistic and pedagogical work of visual art teacher, in turn, has its own characteristics associated with professional activities.
Thus, the number of teachers - artists, including B. Nemensky (4, 143) believes that the content of teaching art should include three groups of problems: the problem of moral and aesthetic (the content of art), artistic and creative tasks (formation of creative thinking) and the problems of means of expression (arts).
The main category of artistic thinking - artistic image is the image at the same time a generalization. This is particularly evident in the portraits of historical plan. Here the artistic image, although the image is dedicated to specific individuals, bears the traits of his time, the artist the power of his talent and imagination gives portraits characteristically typical features in accordance with its plan, it gives a synthesis image.
These are portraits of Amir Temur,
Mirzo Ulugbek, Al Beruni by the famous artist M. Nabiyev, full of admiration, pathos, pride of our great ancestors, love for our land, its history, gave rise to many of the great figures of his time. It is here that there is a high level of generalization, typing, glorification of the artistic image. And the ideals of women, mothers and their children - angels, their images? They are full of respect for infinite love, worship. How many of these works in the history of world art, starting with the Italian Renaissance, brush portraits of great artists Raphael, Leonardo da
Vinci, Michelangelo and others?
Specificity, in particular artistic thinking artist and teacher is to find new, unconventional ways of solving professional problems, developing personal qualities such as the need for creative ideas and skills to carry out the conversion in relation to their profession - bachelor of Fine Arts teacher. Thus, we can conclude that the place and role of artistic thinking in the formation of professional qualities of the future teacher - the artist is indispensable to the effectiveness of its training system.
1. E.I. Ignatiev. Imagination and its development in the creative activity human - M.: Knowledge, 1968-32 p.
2. E.I. Korzinova. The problem of development of professional thinking and pedagogical creativity. Artistic - pedagogical education: history, current state and prospects for development. Coll. st.- M .: Century books 2002-460s.
3. V.S. Kuzin. Psychology. Under. Ed. BF Lomov. Book. 2 ed., per. and ext. Moscow: Higher School, 1982-256 p.
4. B. Nemensky. Beauty Wisdom: About problems of education. Book for teachers. Ed. the second break. and d.- M .: Education, 1987-255 p. with silt.